Omega-3: Fakten - Therapie und Dosierung
Migräne: 1,3g EPA & DHA (gem.
Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of
recurrent migraines in adolescents.
Harel Z: Divisions of Adolescent Medicine, Providence RI, USA; Gascon G, Riggs S, Vaz R, Brown W, Exil G
J Adolesc Health 2002 Aug 31:154-61
PURPOSE: To examine whether dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might reduce frequency and severity of migraines in adolescents. METHODS: Twenty-seven adolescents suffering from frequent migraines for at least 1 year (mean 4 +/- 1 years since migraine onset) participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study consisting of 2 months of fish oil, 1-month washout period, and 2 months of placebo (olive oil). Participants self-assessed severity and duration of headache episodes (7-point faces and 10-point visual analog pain scales, 5-point frequency and severity rating scale) throughout the study. At the end of every 2-month treatment period, participants rated the effectiveness of treatment on a 7-point Likert scale (1,"not effective, not worthwhile"; 4,"moderately effective, moderately worthwhile"; 7, "totally effective, totally worthwhile"). A score of > or = 4 on the Likert scale was considered as improvement. RESULTS: Twenty-three adolescents (16 girls, 7 boys, 18 Whites, 3 Hispanics, 1 African-American, 1 Cape Verdean, mean age 15 +/- 1 years) completed the study. Compared with frequency of headaches before the study (31 +/- 4 episodes/2 months), there was a significant (p <.0001) reduction in headache frequency during fish oil treatment (4 +/- 1 episodes/2 months) and during placebo (olive oil) treatment (4 +/- 1 episodes/2 months) but no significant (NS) difference between treatments. Likewise, self-assessment on a 7-point faces pain scale revealed a significant reduction in headache severity during fish oil treatment (2.9 +/- 0.5, p =.01) and during placebo (olive oil) treatment (3.5 +/- 0.4,
About 91% stated that they would recommend fish oil to friends or relatives with headaches vs. 91% who would recommend placebo (olive oil, NS). CONCLUSIONS: Patients experienced a similar reduction in frequency, duration, and severity of headaches during treatment with fish oil and during treatment with olive oil. Although there was no significant difference between treatments, the marked improvement from baseline experienced by the patients suggests that the effect should not be dismissed as simply a placebo effect. In fact, results of this preliminary study suggest that both fish oil and olive oil may be beneficial in the treatment of recurrent migraines in adolescents. Further studies are warranted to compare each of these treatments with other interventions.
The effect of diets containing fish and fish oils on disease risk factors in
Gibson RA: Department of Pediatrics, Flinders Medical Center, Bedford Park, SA
Aust N Z J Med 1988 Aug 18:713-22
Fish and fish oils are rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which are capable of acting as both a source of active eicosanoids and as inhibitors of synthesis of eicosanoids from arachidonic acid by a variety of human cells. There is an extensive literature on the role of omega 3 polyunsaturates in ameliorating the risk factors associated with coronary heart disease, including both atherosclerotic and thrombotic factors. In addition, there is a limited number of studies which report the results of trials testing the effects of fish oils on other clinical conditions including diabetes, arthritis, migraine and psoriasis. There appears to be sufficient evidence to suggest that patients at risk from heart disease could benefit from low dose (1-6 g/day) of fish oil in conjunction with a prudent diet.
Omega-3 Fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune
Simopoulos AP: The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington, D.C. USA
J Am Coll Nutr 2002 Dec 21:495-505
Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.